The Quantum Dimension
From Quantum Physics & Cosmology to Consciousness
M. Thérèse Versyp
The Quantum Dimension
From Quantum Physics & Cosmology to Consciousness
Original title: La
Dimensión Cuántica, de la Física Cuántica a la Conciencia
M. Thérèse Versyp
First English eBook edition, December 2013
Copyright © 2005 by M. Teresa Versyp
All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted in any form or by any means, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise, without previous written permission from the owner of the copyright.
because I know that from Her and from Him
my truth comes
I would like to give special thanks to all of those people who have helped me in the process of creating this book: Adrian Jesper, for his support and unconditional love, Antoni Ribera, for his pleasant conversations and his advice, Mercè Crusat, for crossing my path at the right moment, from my students everywhere, for their enthusiasm and interest, my professors, for their support and for providing me with bibliography and information; also, I would like to thank my brother Francis for his interest in this book and my daughter Susanna for encouraging me from the very beginning.
Another big thank you to the team at the Merrylife Institute for the opportunity of sharing and to all of those that guide me along the Path.
Balance the pairs of opposites and
let the path appear between the two.
God and the Path and man are one.
Alice A. Bailey
1. LIGHT AND CONSCIOUSNESS
The dual nature of light
Light as a corpuscle. The Quantum
Light as a wave. The frequency band
Interference, a basic mechanism of consciousness
Consciousness, a highly coherent quantum state
The wave-particle duality, the mind and the body
Quartz crystals, powerful light focusers
The essence of colour
Beyond the cell, beyond the atom
From the atom to the quarks and leptons
The formidable intranuclear cohesion
Creation and destruction in the subatomic world
3. THE FORCES OF NATURE, the laws that rule the Cosmos
The four interactions or fundamental forces
The magnetic field and magnetism
The virtual particles: the quantum messengers
An endless dance
The creative potential of vacuum
The uncertainty principle and consciousness
Theories in search of the unification of forces
4. THE QUANTUM UNIVERSE AS A HOLOGRAM
Eternally immersed in a non-local reality
The cosmic hologram
The hologram concept
A Holographic Universe
The esoteric texts: a convergent point?
5. THE KINGDOM OF NEBULAE: A look towards infinity
The spreading of Cosmos
Our place in the Universe
The cosmological principle
A flat universe?
The bioenergy field
The Zero-Point Field
The electroweak theory of Glashow-Weinberg-Salam
Quantum chromodynamics: a theory for strong interaction
Grand unifying theories
In search of an ultimate theory
Old structures are shaken, ancient concepts are broken, preconceived ideas loose their meaning in a new world that appears over the horizon. A new paradigm is born: that of the breadth of vision, especially that of freedom.
Our roots are strongly anchored in the Newtonian Mechanistic view of the eighteenth century, a time of rationalism, materialism and scientific scepticism. This growing materialism of the last three hundred years has been undoubtedly accompanied by important knowledge of physics, with the consequent genesis of fantastic discoveries. But, unfortunately the fact of a schism is undeniable, of a deep disconnection between matter and spirit, between man and his surrounding world. According to this vision, man, oblivious to his surroundings and a stranger in the disconnected and objective Universe, moves governed by a huge clockwork mechanism, where everything perfectly fits and where the fixed and immutable laws reign, in the absence of all of the influence of the mind and of consciousness. It is the empire of a deep determinism that covers us with an invisible cloak. This is reflected, for example, in Newton’s three laws of motion and the mechanical model of the Solar System. In the Microcosms, the concept of hard and unbreakable atoms that act like billiard balls governs. Newton’s vision detaches us from the tissue of the Universe itself, bringing the concept of an objective world where the observer is lost.
Up until now, we have seen ourselves reflected in the mirror of Newtonian Physics, but with the birth of Quantum Physics and its development over the past century, a new paradigm is emerging. Modern Physics guides us bit by bit towards a new vision, towards a different way of understanding nature, towards an expansion of our understanding of everyday life. It drives us to a fusion with the Universe and a reconciliation with our surroundings, ultimately, it gives us a new perspective of the world.
A new language is emerging in which Body, Mind and Spirit merge into one single essence. Quantum Physics encompasses the energy dimension of the human being and establishes a new basis for the understanding of the body and mind. Most of the secrets enclosed within the human body are probably found in their energy field and the quantum mechanics allows this to be investigated from the scientific method. The new quantum paradigm places the Newtonian model of the man-machine in the same large panorama of man as an energetic entity in harmony with a Universe that is also energetic. In fact, during the second half of the last century, a new tendency started emerging that advocates the body-mind union and it was even admitted that the mind was capable of interfering in the body’s metabolism.
Quantum Physics describes what happens internally in everything that we see and in what we are physically. The entire material world, for example, our physical body, is made up of atoms and subatomic particles and the laws that govern, indisputably, affect our performance, on a physical level as well as in the different planes of consciousness or subtle bodies, according to oriental mysticism (etheric body, emotional body, mental body and spiritual body).
Furthermore, the quantum model is deeply indeterminist, which results in a wide range of possibilities, of possible quantum realities and in an inherent freedom. In fact, Quantum Physics emerged as a generalisation of Classical Physics. As Relativity extends the scope of the laws of Physics in the region of high velocities, Quantum Physics extends it to the region of the tiny. The mechanistic principles loose their validity at the level of subatomic particles, where matter and energy, essentially, are the same. This matter/energy correspondence derives from Einstein’s famous equation, E=mc2, where E represents the energy of a matter system, m, the mass and c, the speed of light in vacuum (300,000 Km/s). All beings in the Universe have their energetic content.
The experiments in Particle Physics have proven that, at a level of elementary particles, all matter is energy, in other words, matter is frozen light. In high-energy laboratories, particles and anti-particles are annihilated, resulting in radiant energy and from that pure energy, particle-antiparticle pairs are born. The quantum world is magical: continuously within it, there are processes of creation and of destruction. Energy and matter are no more than two polarities of the same essence, of the same universal substance. Man himself is formed of the same material as the Universe: of pure and radiant light.
Since we accept that matter is energy, we can easily relate everything with consciousness. Quantum Physics provides us with a new relationship between matter and consciousness, which invites us to renovate our scheme of things and our way of seeing the world: much more holistic and less fragmented. In Quantum Physics, all notions of “separate” actually lack foundation. We are immersed in a “non local” Universe where everything is interconnected on an instantaneous and un-coincidental manner. Indeed, the double aspect of consciousness/matter or mind/body is reflected in the wave/particle duality applicable to all subatomic particles, where consciousness is linked to the wave aspect or energetic aspect, whilst the body originates in the material or corpuscular aspect. According to the wave/particle duality, all physical beings, be it in matter form or radiation form (light), have wave properties (vibration or energetic qualities) as well as presenting corpuscular (material) behaviour. Young’s experiment of the double slit is a beautiful example of such behaviour.
The particles display their corpuscular or wavy characters depending on how we prepare the experiment and on what we wish to observe, in other words, depending on how we observe, we will see the atomic reality in one way or another. There is a type of internal dialogue between the researcher’s consciousness and the elementary particles. Observer and observed are interpenetrating aspects of a total reality, which is indivisible. They are interdependent. A point of view appears of the human being interfaced with the body of light of the Earth, as was preached to us, from centuries ago, by the indigenous people. Furthermore, for these people, spirituality and mysticism are community realities, where the invisible constitutes as a level of reality.
Moreover, if we penetrate more deeply into the atom each time, into the very atomic nucleus, where the wonderful Creative Force is felt, all are energy patterns as an energetic network in continuous interaction. The gluons along with the quarks are what make up this network of energy interconnection. They are responsible for the cohesion of the atomic nucleus. In these terms, the molecular order of the physical body is a complex lattice of interwoven energy fields. The human being is a unit of consciousness, product of the interaction of these different energy fields.
Indeed, at the dawn of the new millennium, a new type of therapy has gained momentum, known as energy medicine or vibratory therapy. Said medicine or therapy in its various forms works directly on the human energy body with the means of restoring the balance of these energies when they are lost. Think that the work in the energy body will be one of the mainstays of the therapy and spirituality of the third millennium.
In short, the world of elementary particles, where the laws of Quantum Physics prevail, puts us in a different perspective and provides us with a different view that the one that we are accustomed to. It is about going forward and leaving behind old dogmas and mindsets. Science transforms the already formed concepts and takes our knowledge to a superior level, resulting in an expansion of consciousness.
We are at the very gates of a great reunion: material science and spirituality, the mind and heart, logical reasoning and intuition.
Atomic Structure and Elementary Particles
THE BOHR ATOMIC MODEL
AND THE HUMAN BEING
In the 4th century before Christ, in Ancient Greece, Democritus postulated the existence of the atom, an indivisible and incorruptible particle, as the final constituent of bodies. To consider that the world is formed by some basic indivisible building blocks represented the seeds of the modern scientific thought, although these ideas remained dormant for two thousand years.
In 1808, the English chemist John Dalton proposed the modern atomic theory of matter. Dalton postulated that the elements are made up of discrete particles called atoms, in honour of Democritus, and that the atoms of a certain element are all alike and have the same mass.
But, at the end of the 19th century, there was the increasingly convincing thought that the atoms were not the most basic components in nature. The first indications date from 1869 when Dmitri Mendeleev discovered that when classifying the atomic elements, their properties repeated at regular intervals. Later on it would be proven that this is due to the fact that the atoms are not an elementary structure, but actually a complex one.
Thomson proposed a model of the atom in which the positive charges were distributed uniformly inside a sphere and in which the electrons were found scattered. Electrons were already well-known thanks to Thomson’s work and it was discovered that they were emitted by incandescent metal filaments and other materials when light fell on them.
In 1911, however, the Thomson model was substituted by experiments on the scattering of the alpha particles (Helium-4 nucleus) through matter. Observing a small deviation of these particles crossing a thin gold plate, Rutherford proposed that all the positive charge of the atom and most of its mass were concentrated in a nucleus placed in the centre. From here came the idea that the Microcosm is an exact copy of the Macrocosm.
In our exploration of the Microcosm we find that electrons revolve around a positive nucleus in orbits similar to those of the planets around the Sun. Therefore it can be inferred that the atom has its own internal life, since it constitutes a tiny vibrating world. It is a minuscule system with a positive centre or central sun, around which the electrons revolve. The atom is a force or energy centre (we will see later on that the breaking down of the atom into even more elementary subatomic particles are just energy patterns which work in correlation as one whole). In this dynamism there is a never ending search for balance between the attraction force – the strong force – and the repulsive one – the repulsive force between the protons – that holds the atomic structure together. Similarly, the electromagnetic attraction force between the electrons and the central nucleus, and the centripetal force that the electron achieves thanks to its speed in the circular orbit compensate each other with an absolute perfection. The electromagnetic attraction is an essential cohesion factor in the atom, while the speed that makes the electron remain in its orbit is essential for its equilibrium. If the speed were altered around a certain orbit, everything would be destroyed.
Fig 5: The atom with its nucleus and electron cloud
In spite of this being such an attractive model for the atom – like a miniature solar system – according to the laws of physics of those times, an atom of this kind could not exist. In its movement around the nucleus, the charged electrons are constantly accelerated and according to the classical electromagnetic theory, any accelerated charged body radiates energy in the way of radiation, losing speed and falling into the nucleus. Everything would destabilize, but now we know this is not true. In the quantum world there is a perfect equilibrium and harmony. The fact that the laws of the Classical Physics, which are based on the experience with macroscopic systems, are not totally valid when working with microscopic systems, like the atom, is not at all surprising. The Danish physician Niels Bohr, through a series of postulates, considered that the electrons in their orbit do not emit nor absorb energy and, therefore, do not fall into the nucleus. However, electrons do emit or absorb energy when they jump from one orbit to another. In 1913, Bohr proposed a theory to explain the stability of the hydrogen atom and predicted the radiation spectrum emitted by this atom. The hydrogen atom, with a single proton in its nucleus and a single electron around, is the most simple atom, but of a considerable practical interest. Most of the Universe consists of isolated hydrogen atoms, as well as the human body, where the hydrogen atom is the third most abundant.
Bohr’s fundamental postulates are the following:
An atom has a discrete set of stationary states with the energies E1, E2, E3, etc. In these states, the atom does not radiate electromagnetic energy. Its energy is a constant. Each energy level is given by number, called principal quantum number. The closest level to the nucleus is the ground state or fundamental state, because it is the level with the lowest energy. The stable state of the atom is precisely this state of minimum energy.
An electron in a stationary state describes a circular orbit.
The emission and absorption of radiation by an atom only happens when the atom changes from one stationary state to another, caused by the electron jumps between energy levels.
Fig 6: Electron jumps
As we can see in the adjacent figure, in example A, the electron jumps to a higher energy level absorbing the energy of a photon and, therefore, exciting itself. Only those photons whose energy is exactly equal to the difference in energy of the levels between which the transition takes place, can be absorbed by the atom. In example B, the electron jumps to a lower energy level emitting a photon. This release of its energy excess produces the emission spectrum.
This electron jumps take place constantly in the human being. The systems of the organism hold different energy levels or vibrational modes that include a wide range, from health and well-being to illness. In fact, we know that the optimum state for living beings is that of an electron excitation (non-equilibrium state, physically speaking). The human being whose systems are at a low energy level – discomfort or illness – will need an energy contribution or quantum of the adequate frequency, to later, through its absorption, recover health. For example, we can emphasize the importance of energy therapies like flower essences, homeopathy, crystals, the use of sound, colour therapy, etc. as subtle vibrations which have a direct effect on the person.
We already saw in the previous chapter how crystals and the use of colour have a central role in the healing field. We have to be ‹‹excited›› at a certain level so we can afterwards release this energy excess in the way of light, since any energy absorption or excitation conveys a subsequent release (we always tend toward a state of minimum energy). Any external factor is enough to produce an energy excitation in the organism. This previous excitation is also necessary to produce an information exchange, either between two subatomic particles, between two atoms or between to living organisms. An information exchange is essentially a photon exchange issue (a photon that is absorbed and later is released), that we will see more in detail when I talk about the force field.
As I have just mentioned, any energy excitation induces a release. This release is what produces precisely the atomic spectra. The atomic spectra occur when the atoms in an excited energy state, due to a heat, a light or any other action, release their energy excess by means of the emission of electromagnetic radiation in order to return to its fundamental state or state of minimum energy. This emission is a spontaneous emission and, therefore, incoherent. This means that the photon emitted does not have a defined phase in relation to others spontaneously emitted. They collimate this radiation through a slit and then they make it go through a prism, where it splits into its wavelength spectrum, and later it is registered on a photographic plate. The electromagnetic radiation emitted by free atoms is concentrated in a set of discrete wavelengths (they organize themselves in separate lines), in contrast to the continuous spectrum of the radiation emitted, for example, by the Sun, where we go gradually from one wavelength to another. Each wavelength matches a line. Each atom has its own characteristic spectrum: its unique fingerprint. On the other hand, the absorption spectra also show us that the atoms only absorb energies from certain wavelengths and frequencies: the energy absorption by atoms is discontinuous. Whereas, for the white light we have a continuous spectrum: the beautiful colours of the rainbow.
In the human being, at a subatomic level, these processes of absorption, spontaneous emission and another kind of emission called stimulated emission takes place. The stimulated emission consists of the energy excitation of an atom which is already in an excited state. The move of the electron from a higher to a lower level (which is stimulated by the photon incident) also takes place, but instead of producing an emission of incoherent light, as in the case of spontaneous emission, a photon is emitted in accordance with the phase and parallel with the initial photon. Therefore, there is an amplification of the initial beam and for this reason this emission is also called mitogenetic laser radiation. The stimulated emission is only possible in non-equilibrium conditions. This is the same as saying that the number of excited atoms excels the number of the ones that are not excited. In the human being, therefore, a previous excitation is necessary. Then, with the emission of this radiation there is a transition of excited molecules from a non-equilibrium state to an equilibrium one.
Every human being has his light field depending on how he/she can absorb these small amounts of energy and emit them by giving off light. The photons emitted by atoms in human beings have certain characteristics. It is known that different energy lights have different colours. The resulting spectrum is similar to that of the solar light. These phenomena at a subatomic level (absorption, spontaneous emission, stimulated emission) are responsible for every human being having his/her characteristic band of energy, in other words, his/her aura. Aura is a term used to refer to the light field that emanates from a being, depending on his/her physical/emotional/mental/spiritual state. Since long ago, human beings have known of the existence of the aura. It was known that around saints, mystics, shamen, etc. there was an energy source that emanated from their hands or head. Depending on different cultures, it has been called Prana, Qi, Bioplasma or Vital Energy. Not only do people have an aura, but animals, plants and minerals also have them. Objects like talismans or amulets can be impregnated with the aura of a being. The aura varies in colour, in intensity and the layers of colour change shape, width and behaviour. The aura is essentially dynamic and depends on the energy state of the organism. It has been possible to visualize the aura through the famous Kirlian cameras which work with a mechanism, called electrographic photography (see Chapter 6).
A resonant vibrational model
As Erwin Schrödinger, the father of the modern quantum theory, points out, it is extremely gratifying to conceive of a quantum transition like a change of energy between one vibrational mode and another, instead of a simple jump of electrons. Schrödinger tried to find an elegant theory that described all the atomic events and he found an associated equation, called the Schrödinger equation. In 1926, Schrödinger proposed an atomic model, called the wave mechanic model of the atom. According to this model, the electron in an atom behaves like a three-dimensional stationary wave. Each energy level goes with a three-dimensional stationary wave that surrounds the nucleus. The orbits of Bohr permitted are those in which the circumference of the orbit can have exactly a whole number of wavelengths. The concept of wave becomes extremely important. To go from one image of stationary wave to another, the electron must gain or lose quantized energy. It is the wave function that describes the movement of the electron and from the square of the wave function we can calculate the probability of finding the electron in a certain region of space. Precisely, the Schrödinger equation describes the evolution of the wave function associated with the movement of any given particle that is found under the influence of a force field.
The Bohr model, as well as the Schrödinger model, describes the atom like a tiny vibrational world. Besides this vibrational pattern which I have just described for the electrons revolving around the nucleus, we actually need four parameters in order to characterize the quantum state of an electron, these are called quantum numbers. The principal quantum number determines the energy content of the electron, which is given by the stationary orbit in which it is found. The principal quantum number together with the azimuthal quantum number and the magnetic quantum number are used to describe the location of the electron in the three-dimensional space. The fourth quantum number appears thanks to the spin or the rotation around an axis. This rotational axis, however, cannot be accurately defined. Thus, when measuring the particles, we do cause them to take a certain rotational axis. The orientation of the spin on a certain axis in space can be “up” (spin up) or “down” (spin down). In the figure we can see this in relation to the axis in vertical position:
Fig 7: Spin orientation according to the vertical position
It is as if the electron were a small magnet with a south pole and a north pole. Thanks to this very interesting property, the electron can be considered the smallest magnetic particle.
In fact, any subatomic particle has inherent magnetic properties. For example, the hydrogen nucleus or protons behave like tiny spinning balls. In the absence of an exterior magnetic field, the nuclei orient themselves randomly; whereas, in the presence of such a field, they orient themselves predominantly according to the direction of the field. In absence of the magnetic field, the magnetic effects are neutralized, whereas in the presence of it, the effects accumulate: there is coherence. Something similar occurs with coherent and harmonic thought. The more harmonic and coherent we are, the more alignment there will be at a subatomic level, producing a stronger attraction force radiated towards the exterior. Perhaps here is where that really special magnetism lies that certain people have.
Fig 8: Coherent effect: spins lined up and their analogy with a school of fish that swim in the same direction
Precisely, nuclear magnetic resonance uses these magnetic properties of the hydrogen nuclei. This consists of the absorption of radiofrequency electromagnetic energy under a magnetic field, producing then an excess of energy which will be released in the way of a radiofrequency emission, which will allow building an image of a certain region of the patient. In essence, resonance is the energy absorption by an atom, nucleus or any elementary particle, which is excited, releasing afterwards the energy that is transferred to particles of a similar nature. It is an amplification process of the successive waves that take place, as long as the frequency of the exterior waves is similar to the frequency of the oscillating system. That is to say, resonance happens when it is emitted at the exact frequency of the rotation of the hydrogen nuclei and that is when the energy absorption occurs.
Vibrational energy therapies act precisely on our body, taking advantage of the resonance by virtue of which our body absorbs energy in very specific amounts. If we submit it to vibrations of very similar frequencies the resonance phenomenon takes place, providing energy to our system and at the same time achieving an internal equilibrium and harmony.
The Hidden Quantum Universe
BEYOND THE QUARK
In the Particle Physics we have a relative coherent frame – the Standard Model – that successfully describes the strong and the electroweak (electromagnetic + weak nuclear force) interaction and that has been able to investigate the structure of matter up to 10-18 meters. Six different ‹‹flavours›› of quarks and six leptons form the basic building blocks of the observable universe. However, the Standard Model does not include the gravity force, which is described by General Relativity and by some theories that do include it, like the theory of Supersymmetry. According to the Standard Model there has to be a scalar field in the Universe, called the Higgs field, responsible of the bosons that transmit the weak force having a mass. The Higgs boson is associated with this field that pervades the universe. As particles travel through this field, they acquire mass. Thus, the Higgs mechanism is the thing that allows us to understand how the particles acquire mass.
Also, the existence of a substructure beyond the quark and leptons would be no surprise, as the discovery of the protons, the neutrons and the electrons inside the atom was no surprise in its day either. Thanks to obtaining higher energy levels, we are capable of further researching the heart of the atom. In addition, the exploration in the successive substratum of matter helps us to understand the Cosmic Ocean in expansion a bit better. There is, unquestionably, a correspondence principle between the Microcosm and the Macrocosm.
Many hopes are placed on the hadron collider (the Large Hadron Collider, LHC), coordinated by the CERN, the European Laboratory for Particle Physics located in Geneva. This collider is the result of a large scale project of international collaboration that has 20 member states. It is a circular particle accelerator of a 27 km perimeter of a complexity and an energy force without precedent. In the particle accelerators subatomic particles are accelerated at speeds close to that of light, to afterwards make them collide. The protons will achieve speeds of up to a 99.9999991 % the speed of light and guided by huge superconducting magnets refrigerated at 1.9 Kelvin they will collide at four points of their circuit. The higher the energy achieved in the collisions, the closer we are to simulating the conditions of the origin of the Universe.
For 2015 they hope to be able to reach energies of the order of 14 TeV (teraelectronvolts), recreating in this way the conditions that existed in the universe a billionth of a second after the Big Bang. There will be, approximately, a thousand million collisions per second. After these collisions, particles of the most diverse nature appear and it is possible that they discover, in the way of a minuscule signal, some of the particles that are candidates for the unification theories.
If Supersymmetry were correct, there are good reasons to think that the LHC could find the new particles aforementioned by this theory. Likewise they hope to do research in a new substratum of matter and shed light on the nature of the invisible matter dominant in the universe.
We will be able to penetrate the most intimate secrets of matter, reaching an order of 10-19meters. Perhaps the internal structure of the quark will appear in front of the researcher and we will be able to glimpse a more subtle world, another “hidden kingdom” . All of this without question responds to the human fascination for the Cosmos.
However, thanks to the energy intensity level that this new collider will be able to generate, probably a new physics which answers the many pending questions will appear. Perhaps our story of the universe will have to be modified or perhaps we will have to drastically change our view of the surrounding Cosmos and give a quantum leap in our understanding of the Magic of Life.
Applications in the transmission of information
Table 1 Some applications of physics experiments at high energies
Fig 27: The author in front of a sample of a superconducting dipole magnet at the entrance of the Square Galileo Galilei (CERN)- ©M.T.Versyp
For more than two decades of penetrating into the mysteries of the vast Cosmos, the astronomers now know that galaxies have much more matter than can be seen. In our galaxy they have detected the presence of a halo or dark matter that surrounds the galactic disk. In fact, this presence spreads to the entire universe. In the Cosmos a strange presence lurks that “seduces” the researcher who “notices” its effects, but does not see it.
It hides from us behind a dark veil, but it presents in its core a fantastic energy density of a high vibrational quality and which surpasses that of the visible matter. It turns out that the known matter is only a 15% of the total existing matter; the remaining 85% is hidden matter!
Logically this affirmation requires a strong theoretical and experimental basis in which there are three key arguments.
The first one is a gravitational argument, that is, the gravity of the visible matter is insufficient to explain the orbital speed of the stars in the galaxies and of the galaxies in the clusters.
In the second place, the ‹‹ghost effect›› of an additional matter is needed to explain the large-scale structure of the universe.
And finally, the presence of the dark matter would explain the huge uniformity of the microwave background radiation, in accordance with the flat model of the Cosmos, with which the age of our universe would be satisfactorily explained as well.
The truth is that we are immersed in a giant ‹‹sea›› of cosmic proportions in the way of enormously subtle diffused elementary particles, which escape from the present detection methods. In the jargon of physicists, these particles form the called non-baryonic exotic matter, that is to say, matter that is not composed of protons nor neutrons. The most favourite candidates seem to be the WIMPS (Weakly Interacting Massive Particles), particles of a considerable mass which would interact with matter very weakly. The heavy neutrinos with a mass similar to that of the proton mass would be a good example.
In scientific circles they also talk about no less exotic candidates such as the magnetic monopoles (supposed magnetic charges), cosmic strings (supposed “string knots” with different vibrational energies, like basic constituents of matter and radiation particles) or supersymmetric hadrons (the supersymmetric particles are the “companions” of the ordinary particles according to the theories of supersymmetry, like the photinos, “companions of the ordinary photons”, or the scalar neutrinos, “scalar ordinary neutrino pairs”; see Appendix 2).
The hypotheses, as we can see, are many and we get the feeling that we really are on shaky ground. Dark matter is a reality and it is not an external fact to us, but genuinely a part of our existence. These invisible elementary particles fill the Cosmos with an absolute uniformity. They are everywhere; they even go through the crust of the earth and our body at a rhythm of …107 times the mass of a proton per cm2 and per second! Let’s give an example, if dark matter is in the way of elementary particles with an approximate mass 100 times that of the proton, then 100,000 of these particles that come from the galactic halo would go through every cm2 of our body every second.
Incredible, don’t you think?
Something strange is producing an important acceleration in the expansion of the Universe, leading perhaps to a new inflationary phase. Physicists are perplexed; there are many theories, but not a single one totally convincing.
This expansive behaviour has no explanation in a universe exclusively composed of ordinary matter. In the previous section we have seen that dark matter far exceeds visible matter, but that dark matter itself only occupies a small fraction in comparison with a colossus that exceeds everything: an invisible exotic energy that fills the universe with total uniformity, bathing it in a “colourless fluid”. This energy would have the interesting property of having a negative pressure, that is to say, it would increase its internal energy when expanding. The effect of a negative pressure is opposed to that of gravity, in other words, it causes an anti-gravitational effect. If an exotic energy of negative pressure filled the space, then the universe could expand at accelerated speeds and the galaxies would start to move away every time more rapidly.
How is this type of energy named by the physicists?
There are basically two candidates for this type of energy. The first one refers to the famous cosmological constant introduced by Einstein. Einstein used this constant in his equations in order to have a static universe, a position that later on he had to give up due to experimental observations in favour of a dynamic universe in full expansion. The cosmological constant Λ describes an energy density, different from the known mass and energy forms, that fills the vacuum space. The presence of a cosmological term of positive value modifies the Law of Universal Gravitation at great distances, adding a contribution in the way repulsion. The effect of this force would be unobservable in our Solar System, but significant at a scale of galaxy clusters and higher scales.
Moreover, this type of energy has the property of being constant in time, that is to say, it does not dilute as the Universe expands. It seems that, as by a strange coincidence, this density of energy stored in the vacuum space has approximately the same value as the density of the present matter (10-29g/cm3), more or less equivalent to the mass of a proton per cubic meter.
The suppliers of this mysterious energy could be the virtual particles that fill the space in a diffused way. These virtual particles should contribute with a vacuum energy total of many more orders of magnitude than the energy density of all the matter. The shortest wavelength which we can consider contributes to this space energy is of about 10-33 centimetres. If we calculated the amount of energy in 1 cm3 of space with such short wavelengths, the result would be enormously higher than the total energy of known matter. According to Bohm, vacuum space has a huge background supply of energy, and matter, as we know it, is a little excitation quantized in the form of a wave that rises over this background very much like that of a small ripple on a vast sea. Obviously all this colossal energy cannot be the cause of the acceleration of the universe, since macroscopic structures like stars and galaxies would move away. In one way or another there must be a cancellation of this vacuum energy, a mechanism which is still under discussion. Consistently, the idea of a cosmological constant is attractive, but not exempt of difficulties.
Vacuum energy is not the only process by which negative pressures occur. The second mechanism is an energy source that, contrary to vacuum energy, varies in space and time. It comprises a kingdom of possibilities that is summarized in the term quintessence. This term comes from “the fifth element” in allusion to Greek philosophy, referring to the highest level of reality. According to ancient traditions, it is Ether, the womb of the Mother that together with the earth, air, fire and water elements makes up the Universe. This strange kind of subtle energy escapes the capacity for detection of the accelerators. It represents a quantum field that evolves in time, is variable in space and does not accelerate the universe with the same force as vacuum energy does, since its pressure is less negative. Moreover, the quintessence can be subject to all kind of complex evolutions, it is intrinsically dynamic, and to top it all, it requires a Physics with more dimensions.
With time, if more measurements of the supernovas are taken and microwave background radiation studies along a wide range of distances are carried out, we will be able to figure out which of both alternatives is the correct one, or perhaps neither is and we will need a completely new theory.
Summing up, we have seen that objects that emit a measurable radiation – stars, quasars, galaxies… – are a very small portion of the existing matter in the universe. We ignore more than 90% of the existing matter in the Cosmos. On the other hand, it seems that there is an exotic energy in the space that ‹‹bombards›› us from all directions; this seems to be the main ingredient of the Universe, either in the way of a cosmological constant or in the way of the quintessence.
As Lawrence Krauss explains in his book Quintessence,
“The salient point is that independent arguments about large-scale structure, galaxy formation, and the evolution of the visible universe most recently combined with CMBR observations all suggest the need for ‘something else’ that dominates the density of the universe today.”
“Out there it´s something which we know absolutely nothing about.”
In all these considerations, the cosmological models for space are accomplices. The flat model together with the inflation theories is the favourite candidate if the existence of an enormous fraction of approximately 70% of exotic energy is true. It is also true that there are opinions in favour of a model of an open universe. The controversies among scientists are not few.
Will the universe expand forever or will it collapse back upon itself in a future? The mystery continues unsolved. The fact is that for the moment we do not have the definitive answer to our cosmic fate.
In any case, something big is happening: we have realized, that besides the matter we know, there is a subtle and fantastic world to discover; we could call it the ethereal dimension, ethereal body or subtle body of the universe.
Fig 1 The electromagnetic spectrum
Fig 2 Wave interference
Fig 3 Waves associated with different particles
Fig 4 Decomposition of light passing through a prism
Fig 9 Classification of the 46 most important subatomic particles
Fig 10 Classification of particles in geometric patterns
Fig 11 Constitution of the atom
Fig 12 Interconnective energy net of the gluons
Fig 13 Dematerialization process and materialization process
Fig 14 Union of Yin and Yang drawing
Fig 15 Virtual photon emission
Fig 16 Here the photons are emitted as real particles
Fig 17 Bubble chamber photograph. Photo CERN
Fig 18 The particles that do not have charge, do not leave trails and its presence can only be detected indirectly, such as the case of K° and Λ°
Fig 19 Exchange diagrams of a virtual photon and a W¯ boson
Fig 20 Particle-antiparticle pairs annihilate each other resulting in photons, and vice versa
Fig 21 Temporal cause-effect relationship
Fig 22 Plasma of free quarks, leptons and photons
Fig 23 Soup of quarks
Fig 24 Protons and neutrons join to form helium
Fig 25 Hydrogen and Helium atoms
Fig 26 Artistic view of the Milky Way
Fig 30 The seven major chakras of the human body
Fig 31 Two particles with opposite spin
Fig 32 Torsion field diagram (Zero-Point Field)
Fig 33 Golden ratio proportion
Fig 34 Location of the pyramids to a third of a distance from the North Pole to the Equator
Fig 35 Some of the places where the ball-lightning phenomenon is very frequent
Fig 36 “The Column of Fire” Photograms of the video filmed on the 5th June 1997 by Jennifer Jarvis, © ORBWATCH (Canada)
Fig 37 1st photoset of the crop circle in West Overton (Wiltshire, England)
Fig 38 2nd photoset of the crop circle in West Overton (Wiltshire, England)
Fig 39 Top view drawing of ‘Dumbbells’ crop circle appeared in West Overton the summer of 2006
Fig 40 Photoset of the crop circle that appeared on the 22nd of July 2006 in Milk Hill (Alton Barnes)
M. Thérèse Versyp was born in Ostend, Belgium. In 1985 she graduated in Primary Education in Girona, Spain. In 1994 she graduated in Physics from the Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona. Later she specialized in Theoretical Physics and got her master’s degree in Particle and Gravitational Physics. She has a thorough knowledge of the current Cosmology as well as of the world of the elementary particles.
Her research activity is focused on the nature of the invisible matter of the universe. Some years ago, she came into contact with energy medicine and with Oriental mysticism leading her to the study of the human being’s energy dimension using tools of Quantum Physics.
She has been sharing her enthusiasm, teaching courses and giving lectures at different universities and centres in Spain for over a decade; she has also participated in multiple conferences about Quantum Physics and Consciousness.
At present she is doing theoretical research on the Zero-Point Field in connection with Biophysics.